Gender differences in research performance and its impact on careers: a longitudinal case study

Peter van den Besselaar, Ulf Sandström We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van Arensbergen et al. 2012). If the differences do not occur in the early career anymore, they may emerge in a later period, or may remain absent. In this paper we use the same sample of male and female researchers, but now compare performance levels about 10 years later. We use various performance indicators: full/fractional counted productivity, citation impact, and relative citation impact in terms of the share of papers in the top 10 % highly cited papers. After the 10 years period, productivity of male researchers has grown faster than of female researcher, but the field normalized (relative) citation impact indicators of male and female researchers remain about equal. Furthermore, performance data do explain to a certain extent why male careers in our sample develop much faster than female researchers’ careers; but controlling for performance differences, we find that gender is an important determinant too. Consequently, the process of hiring academic staff still remains biased.

Early career grants, performance, and careers A study on predictive validity of grant decisions

Peter van den Besselaar, Ulf Sandström The main rationale behind career grants is helping top talent to develop into the next generation leading scientists. Does career grant competition result in the selection of the best young talents? In this paper we investigate whether the selected applicants are indeed performing at the expected excellent level – something that is hardly investigated in the research literature. We investigate the predictive validity of grant decision-making, using a sample of 260 early career grant applications in three social science fields. We measure output and impact of the applicants about ten years after the application to find out whether the selected researchers perform ex post better than the non-successful ones. Overall, we find that predictive validity is low to moderate when comparing grantees with all non-successful applicants. Comparing grantees with the best performing non-successful applicants, predictive validity is absent. This implies that the common belief that peers in selection panels are good in recognizing outstanding talents is incorrect. We also investigate the effects of the grants on careers and show that recipients of the grants do have a better career than the non-granted applicants. This makes the observed lack of predictive validity even more problematic.

Excellenssatsningarna - belöning för kön eller toppforskning?

Ulf Sandstrom, Agnes Wold Women make up 30% of top researchers in Sweden. Thus, the fact that women receive less than 20% of funds for research at centres of excellence cannot be explained by a lack of top female researchers. It is more probable that notions of who are ‘excellent’ are coloured by gender prejudices. At the same time, half the recipients of excellence funding cannot be characterised as top researchers.

Centres of excellence: reward for gender or top-level research?

Ulf Sandström, Agnes Wold Women make up 30% of top researchers in Sweden. Thus, the fact that women receive less than 20% of funds for research at centres of excellence cannot be explained by a lack of top female researchers. It is more probable that notions of who are ‘excellent’ are coloured by gender prejudices. At the same time, half the recipients of excellence funding cannot be characterised as top researchers.

Effekten av högskolesektorns forskningsfinansiering sedan 2009

Ulf Heyman, Ulf Sandström

The Complex Relationship between Competitive Funding and Performance

Ulf Sandstrom, Ulf Heyman, Peter van den Besselaar Paper to the STI 2014 in Leiden.

Review of Diffusion Research

Pranpreya Sriwannawit, Ulf Sandstrom Despite the fact that diffusion research has existed for more than one century, there is no quantitative review study that covers this subject in a broad and general context. This article reviews diffusion research by providing an extensive bibliometric and clustering analysis. We identify research trails and explain the characteristics of diffusion research using new methods. We contribute a methodology for the use of advanced mapping and clustering techniques in order to describe the research areas. This method produces a fairly good overview of diffusion research and can be applied to any knowledge field to replace or complement the traditional literature review.

Identifying emerging biorefinery technologies & potential markets: A technometric approach

Michael Novotny, Ulf Sandström Paper to the STI Conference in Berlin 2012. Biorefinery technologies have the potential to partly substitute oil, fossil and metal industries in a wide range of sectors in a near future (Kamm et al 2010; Axegård 2010). This paper is about meth- odologies and mapping of biorefinery technologies, constellations and potential markets thereof. The methodology is characterized by a technometric approach. The aim is, firstly, to track science and technology frontiers in the biorefining field and, secondly, to identify the key agents involved through bibliometrics of applied science and engineering, which then can be matched with patent data and tracking of demonstration plants close to commercialization. This paper has been guided by the theories on technological paradigms and socio-technical communities (Kuhn, 1962; Dosi 1982; Thagaard, 1986) epistemological communities (Haas, 1992) and learning communities (Wenger, 1998). On the basis of this theory we formulate a hypothesis predicting that traditional forest industry countries (high exports/share of GDP) may face a lock-in effect of concentration for research to traditional industries. Our results indicate that countries like Sweden, Finland, Austria, and Germany, which to a considerable extent have been the frontrunners of forest industry technologies both with regards to exports, production volumes, R&D new equipment, are at risk due to lock-in effects.

The effect of funding modes on the quality of knowledge production

Peter van den Besselaar, Ulf Sandstrom Do funding modes have an effect on the quality of knowledge production? In this paper we develop an approach to investigate this, using the new WoS field on funder data, using climate change research in Sweden and the Netherlands in 2009-2010 as a case. We firstly developed an operational definition of climate change research, and retrieved all WoS records for the countries and years mentioned. We developed a classification scheme for the funding organizations of 13 categories, using dimensions as top-down/bottom-up, large/small research, national/international, and public/private. Then all funding institutions were manually classified in the 13 categories. We then calculated the average impact of the papers for each of the funding categories. The results clearly show differences between the funder types, and also between the countries. The latter indicates that a funding mode may be organized in different ways affecting the effectiveness. Finally, we discuss further research.

Nanometrics A Technometric and Socio-Economic Analysis System to Support the Development of the European Nanotechnology Strategy Options Part 2: Case Studies

Ulf Sandström EUReport 25654. Public investments in nanotechnology have thus far largely supported fairly broad based scientific research. It is now time to take stock of the situation by synthesising the latest data available on research and economic activity in nanotechnology, to develop and follow-up indicators, and to formulate strategy options for a European nanotechnology R&D strategy. The NANOMETRICS study establishes a monitoring system that allows to collect data for monitoring the economic and innovation performance of a range of sectors of economy in which nanosciences and nanotechnologies do or could play a significant role. art I: Monitoring System, develops metrics to examine how nanoscale research, products, and markets are evolving over time. art II: Case Studies, presents detailed analyses of selected key domains